Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse

Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays (2006)

Note

This version of the bibliography is the original, as it appeared in print. The bibliography is currently being maintained in Zotero under the auspices of Transformative Works and Cultures. We welcome content submissions and updates, although please note that we deliberately do not index items having to do with anime or manga.

From Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the Internet: New essays (c) 2006 Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse by permission of McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, www.mcfarlandpub.com

Abbott, Stacey, ed. 2005. Reading “Angel”: The TV spin-off with a soul. London: I. B. Tauris.

Abercrombie, Nicholas, and Brian Longhurst. 1998. Audiences: A sociological theory of performance and imagination. London: Sage.

Aden, Roger C. 1999. Popular stories and promised lands: Fan cultures and symbolic pilgrimages. Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press.

Bacon-Smith, Camille. 1992. Enterprising women: Television fandom and the creation of popular myth. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

———. 2000. Science fiction culture. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

Bargh, John A., and Katelyn Y. A. McKenna. 2004. The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology 55:573–90.

Barthes, Roland. 1974. S/Z. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Noonday Press.

———. 1977. From work to text. In Image-music-text, trans. Stephen Heath, 155–64. New York: Hill and Wang.

Baym, Nancy K. 1993. Interpreting soap operas and creating community: Inside a computer-mediated fan culture. Journal of Folklore Research 30:143–76.

———. 1998. Talking about soaps: Communicative practices in a computer-mediated fan culture. In Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture and identity, ed. Cheryl Harris and Alison Alexander, 111–29. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

———. 2000. Tune in, log on: Soaps, fandom, and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Beirne, Rebecca. 2004. Queering the Slayer-text: Reading possibilities in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Refractory 5. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol5/beirne.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

Berg Nellis, Kelly Anne Colleen. 2002. Making sense of television: Interpretive community and The X-Files fan forum—An ethnographic study. PhD diss., Univ. of Missouri–Columbia.

Berry, Chris, Fran Martin, and Audrey Yue, eds. 2003. Mobile cultures: New media in queer Asia. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

Bick, Ilsa J. 1996. Boys in space: Star Trek latency and The Never-Ending Story. In Enterprise zones: Critical responses to “Star Trek,” ed. Taylor Harrison, Sarah Projansky, Kent A. Ono, and Elyce Rae Helford, 189–210. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Boese, Christine. 2003. The ballad of the Internet nutball: Chaining rhetorical visions from the margins of the margins to the mainstream in the Xenaverse. http://www.nutball.com (accessed June 1, 2005).

Braudy, Leo. 1982. Popular culture and personal time. Yale Review 71:481–98.

Brobeck, Kristi Lee. 2004. Under the waterfall: A fanfiction community’s analysis of their self-representation and peer review. Refractory 5. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol5/brobeck.html (accessed October 22, 2005).

Brooker, Will. 2003. Using the Force: Creativity, community and “Star Wars” fans, rev. ed. New York: Continuum International.

Brower, Sue. 1992. Fans as tastemakers: Viewers for quality television. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 163–84. London: Routledge.

Bury, Rhiannon. 2003. Stories for boys girls: Female fans reading The X-Files. Popular Communication 1:217–42.

———. 2004. Language on (the) line: Class, community and the David Duchovny Estrogen Brigades. Communication Institute for Online Scholarship 14.

———. 2004. Of Mounties and gay marriage: Canadian television, American fans, and the virtual heterotopia. Refractory 6. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol6/RBury.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

———. 2005. Cyberspaces of their own: Female fandoms online. New York: Peter Lang.

Busse, Kristina. 2002. Crossing the final taboo: Family, sexuality, and incest in the Buffyverse. In Fighting the forces: What’s at stake in “Buffy the Vampire Slayer”?, ed. Rhonda V. Wilcox and David Lavery, 207–17. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

———. 2005. “Digital get down”: Postmodern boy band slash and the queer female space. In Eroticism in American culture, ed. Cheryl Malcolm and Jopi Nyman, 103–25. Gdansk: Gdansk Univ. Press.

———. 2006. “I’m jealous of the fake me”: Postmodern subjectivity and identity construction in boy band fan fiction. In Framing celebrity: New directions in celebrity culture, ed. Su Holmes and Sean Redmond, 256–67. London: Routledge.

Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender trouble. New York: Routledge.

Cantwell, Marianne. 2004. Collapsing the extra/textual: Passions and intensities of knowledge in Buffy: The Buffy the Vampire Slayer online fan communities. Refractory 5. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol5/cantwell.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Carruthers, Fiona. 2004. Fanfic is good for two things: Greasing engines and killing brain cells. Particip@tions 1. http://www.participations.org/volume%201/issue%202/1_02_carruthers_article.htm (accessed June 1, 2006).

Chandler-Olcott, Kelly, and Donna Mahar. 2003. Adolescents’ anime-inspired “fanfictions”: An exploration of multiliteracies. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 46:556–66.

Chin, Bertha, and Jonathan Gray. 2001. “One ring to rule them all”: Pre-viewers and pre-texts of the Lord of the Rings films. Intensities 2. http://www.cult-media.com/issue2/Achingray.htm (accessed October 22, 2005).

Cicione, Mirna. 1998. Male pair-bonds and female desire in fan slash writing. In Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture and identity, ed. Cheryl Harris and Alison Alexander, 153–77. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Clerc, Susan J. 1996a. DDEB, GATB, MPPB, and Ratboy: The X-Files media fandom, online and off. In “Deny all knowledge”: Reading “The X-Files,” ed. David Lavery, Angela Hague, and Marla Cartwright, 36–51. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press.

———. 1996b. Estrogen brigades and “big tits” threads: Media fandom online and off. In Wired women: Gender and new realities in cyberspace, ed. Lynn Cherny and Elizabeth Reba Wise, 73–97. Seattle: Seal Press.

———. 2002. Who owns our culture? The battle over the Internet, copyright, media fandom, and everyday uses of the cultural commons. PhD diss., Bowling Green State Univ.

Consalvo, Mia. 2003. Cyber-slaying media fans: Code, digital poaching, and corporate control of the Internet. Journal of Communication Inquiry 27:67–86.

Costello, Victor J. 1999. Interactivity and the “cyber-fan”: An exploration of audience involvement within the electronic fan culture of the Internet. PhD diss., Univ. of Tennessee. http://oai.sunsite.utk.edu/links/CostelloVictor.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

Cumberland, Sharon. 2000. Private uses of cyberspace: Women, desire, and fan culture. MIT Communications Forum. January 25. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/cumberland.html (accessed June 1, 2006). Expanded and reprinted in 2003 in Rethinking media change: The aesthetics of tradition, ed. David Thorburn and Henry Jenkins, 261–79. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

———. 2002. The five wives of Ibn Fadlan: Women’s collaborative fiction on Antonio Banderas Web sites. In Reload: Rethinking women + cyberculture, ed. Mary Flanagan and Austin Booth, 175–94. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cupitt, Cathy. 2003. A space for sex: Reproducing corporate product for the public domain. In Liveable communities, ed. Janice Haswell and Diana MacCallum, 117–29. Perth: Black Swan Press. http://www.geocities.com/ccupitt.geo/slash/spacesex.html (accessed October 22, 2005).

Darling-Wolf, Fabienne. 2003. Male bonding and female pleasure: Refining masculinity in Japanese popular cultural texts. Popular Communication 1:73–89.

De Certeau, Michel. 1984. The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

Dennis, Jeffrey P. 2003. Signifying same-sex desire in television cartoons. Journal of Popular Film and Television 31:132–41.

Doty, Alexander. 2000. Flaming classics: Queering the film canon. New York: Routledge.

Ehrenreich, Barbara, Elizabeth Hess, and Gloria Jacobs. 1992. Beatlemania: Girls just want to have fun. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 84–106. London: Routledge.

Ferris, Kerry Orway. 1997. Star struck: The social worlds of serial television fans. PhD diss., Univ. of California, Los Angeles.

Fiedler, Leslie. 1960. Love and death in the American novel. New York: Criterion.

Fiske, John. 1989. Reading the popular. New York: Routledge.

———. 1992. The cultural economy of fandom. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 30–49. London: Routledge.

Foster, Derek. 1997. Community and identity in the electronic village. In Internet culture, ed. David Porter, 23–37. New York: Routledge.

Fraiberg, Allison. 1995. Electronic fans, interpretive flames: Performative sexualities and the Internet. Works and Days 13:196–207.

Ganz-Blättler, Ursula. 1999. Shareware or prestigious privilege? Television fans as knowledge brokers. MIT Communications Forum. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/ganz-blattler.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Geraghty, Lincoln. 2003. Homosocial desire on the final frontier: Kinship, the American romance, and Deep Space Nine‘s “erotic triangles.” Journal of Popular Culture 36:441–65.

———. 2004. “Help when times are hard”: Bereavement and Star Trek fan letters. Refractory 5. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol5/geraghty.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Gillilan, Cinda Lynn. 1999. Zine fans, zine fiction, zine fandom: Exchanging the mundane for a woman-centered world. PhD diss., Univ. of Colorado.

Glaubman, Jane, ed. Forthcoming. Reconstructing Harry: “Harry Potter” fan fiction on the World Wide Web. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

Green, Lelia, and Carmen Guinery. 2004. Harry Potter and the fan fiction phenomenon. Media/Culture 7. http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0411/14-green.php (accessed June 1, 2006).

Green, Shoshanna, Cynthia Jenkins, and Henry Jenkins. 1998. “normal female interest in men bonking”: Selections from the Terra Nostra Underground and Strange Bedfellows. In Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture, and identity, ed. Cheryl Harris and Alison Alexander, 9–38. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Grossberg, Lawrence. 1992. Is there a fan in the house? The affective sensibility of fandom. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 50–68. London: Routledge.

Halberstam, Judith. 1998. Female masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

Hale, Laura M. 2005. A history of fan fic. Fanzine.

Hall, Stuart. 1991. Encoding/decoding. In Culture, media, language: Working papers in cultural studies, 1972–79, rev. ed., ed. Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobson, Andrew Lowe, and Paul Willis, 128–38. London: Hutchinson.

Hamming, Jeannie. 2001. Whatever turns you on: Becoming-lesbian and the production of desire in the Xenaverse. Genders 34. http://www.genders.org/g34/g34_hamming.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Harris, Cheryl D. 1992. Social identity, class and empowerment: Television fandom and advocacy. PhD diss., Univ. of Massachusetts.

Harris, Cheryl, and Alison Alexander, ed. 1998. Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture and identity. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Harrison, Taylor. 1996. Interview with Henry Jenkins. In Enterprise zones: Critical positions on “star trek,” ed. Taylor Harrison, Sarah Projansky, Kent A. Ono, and Elyce Rae Helford, 259–78. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hellekson, Karen. 1997. Doctor Who fans rewrite their program: Mini-UNIT Minstrels as creative consumers of media. Popular Culture Review 8:97–108.

Herzing, Melissa Jean. 2005. The Internet world of fan fiction. MA thesis, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. http://etd.vcu.edu/theses/available/etd-05092005-125907/unrestricted/HerzingThesis.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

Hills, Matt. 2000a. Media fandom, neoreligiosity, and cult(ural) studies. Velvet Light Trap (Fall): 73–84.

———. 2000b. To boldly go where others have gone before: Star Trek and (academic) narratives of progress [book review essay]. Scope (November). http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/film/journal/bookrev/star-trek.htm (accessed June 1, 2006).

———. 2001. Interview with Henry Jenkins. Intensities 2. http://www.cult-media.com/issue2/CMRjenk.htm (accessed October 22, 2005).

———. 2002. Fan cultures. London: Routledge.

———. 2006. Not just another “powerless elite”? When media fans become subcultural celebrities. In Framing celebrity: New directions in celebrity culture, ed. Su Holmes and Sean Redmond, 101–18. London: Routledge.

Hinderman, Stephen. 1992. “i’ll be here with you”: Fans, fantasy and the figure of Elvis. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 107–34. London: Routledge.

Jenkins, Henry. 1990. If I could speak with your sound: Fan music, textual proximity and liminal identification. Camera Obscura 23:149–76.

———. 1991. Star Trek rerun, reread, rewritten: Fan writing as textual poaching. In Close encounters: Film, feminism and science fiction, ed. Constance Penley, Elizabeth Lyons, Lynn Spigel, and Janet Bergstrom, 170–203. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

———. 1992a. Strangers no more, we sing: Filking and the social construction of the science fiction fan community. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 207–36. London: Routledge.

———. 1992b. Textual poachers: Television fans and participatory culture. New York: Routledge.

———. 1998. The poachers and the stormtroopers: Popular culture in the digital age. Red Rock Eater Digest. Talk presented at the Univ. of Michigan, Spring 1998. http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/1998/The.Poachers.and.the.Sto.html (accessed May 14, 2000).

———. 2000a. Digital land grab. MIT Alumni Association Technology Review 103:103–5. http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/00/03/viewpoint0300.asp (accessed October 22, 2005).

———. 2000b. Reception theory and audience research: The mystery of the vampire’s kiss. in Reinventing film studies, ed. C. Gledhill and L. Williams, 165–82. London: Arnold.

———. 2001. Foreword to Interacting with Babylon 5: Fan performances in a media universe, by Kurt Lancaster. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

———. 2002. Interactive audiences: The “collective intelligence” of media fans. The new media book, ed. Dan Harries, 157–70. London: British Film Institute.

———. 2003. Quentin Tarantino’s Star Wars? Digital cinema, media convergence, and participatory culture. In Rethinking media change, ed. David Thorburn and Henry Jenkins, 281–312. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

———. 2004a. Game design as narrative architecture. In First person: New media as story, performance, game, ed. Noah Frup-Waldrop and Pat Harrington, 118–30. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

———. 2004b. The cultural logic of media convergence. International Journal of Cultural Studies 7:33–43. http://ics.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/7/1/33.pdf (accessed October 22, 2005).

———. 2004c. Why Heather can write. Technology Review (February 6). http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/04/02/wo_jenkins020604.asp?p=1 (accessed October 22, 2005).

Jenson, Joli. 1992. Fandom as pathology: The consequence of characterization. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 9–29. London: Routledge.

Jones, Sara Gwenllian. 2000. Starring Lucy Lawless? Continuum 14:9–22.

———. 2002. The sex lives of cult television characters. Screen 43:79–90.

———. 2003. Web wars: Resistance, online fandom and studio censorship. In Quality popular television: Cult TV, the industry, and fans, ed. Mark Jancovich and James Lyons, 163–77. London: British Film Institute.

Jung, Susanne. 2004. Queering popular culture: Female spectators and the appeal of writing slash fan fiction. Gender Forum Gender Queeries 8. http://www.genderforum.uni-koeln.de/queer/jung.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Katz, Arnie. N.d. The philosophical theory of fan history. http://www.smithway.org/fstuff/theory/phil1.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Kem, Jessica Freya. 2005. Cataloging the Whedonverse: Potential roles for librarians in online fanfiction. MS thesis, Univ. of North Carolina–Chapel Hill. http://etd.ils.unc.edu/dspace/bitstream/1901/137/1/jessicakem.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

Kozinets, Robert V. 1997. To boldly go: A hypermodern ethnography of Star Trek fans’ culture and communities consumption. PhD diss., Queen’s Univ., Ontario, Canada.

———. 2001. Utopian enterprise: Articulating the meanings of Star Trek‘s culture of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research 28:67–88.

Kustritz, Anne. 2003. Slashing the romance narrative. Journal of American Culture 26:371–84.

Lamb, Patricia Frazer, and Diane Veith. 1986. Romantic myth, transcendence, and Star Trek zines. In Erotic universe: Sexuality and fantastic literature, ed. Donald Palumbo, 236–55. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Lancaster, Kurt. 2001. Interacting with Babylon 5: Fan performances in a media universe. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

Laurel, B. 2004. Narrative construction as play. Interactions (September–October): 73–74.

Lee, Kylie. 2003. Confronting Enterprise slash fan fiction. Extrapolation 44:69–82.

Lefanu, Sarah. 1989. Feminism and science fiction. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

Lewis, Diane. 2004. Understanding the power of fan fiction for young authors. Kliatt 38, no. 2:4–7.

Lewis, Lisa A., ed. 1992a. The adoring audience. London: Routledge.

———. 1992b. Something more than love: Fan stories on film. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 135–62. London: Routledge.

Lichtenberg, Jacqueline, Sondra Marshak, and Joan Winston. 1975. Do-it-yourself Star Trek—The fan fiction. In “Star Trek” lives!, 221–74. New York: Corgi.

MacDonald, Andrea. 1998. Uncertain utopia: Science fiction media fandom and computer mediated communication. In Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture, and identity, ed. Cheryl Harris and Alison Alexander, 131–52. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Macor, Alison Grace. 2000. The visible audience: Participation, community, and media fandom. PhD diss., Univ. of Texas, Austin.

Mahiri, Jabari. 2000. Pop culture pedagogy and the end(s) of school. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 44:382–87.

McCardle, Meredith. 2003. Fan fiction, fandom, and fanfare: What’s all the fuss? Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law 9:434–68. http://www.bu.edu/law/scitech/volume9issue2/McCardleWebPDF.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

McLelland, Mark. 2000a. Male homosexuality and popular culture in modern Japan. Intersections 3. http://wwwsshe.murdoch.edu.au/intersections/issue3/mclelland2.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

———. 2000b. No climax, no point, no meaning? Japanese women’s boy love sites on the Internet. Journal of Communication Inquiry 24:274–91.

———. 2001. Why are Japanese girls’ comics full of men bonking? Intensities 1. http://www.cult-media.com/issue1/CMRmcle.htm (accessed October 22, 2005).

Merrick, Helen. 2004. “We was cross-dressing ‘afore you were born!,” or How sf fans invented virtual community. Refractory 6. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol6/HMerrick.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Murray, Simone. 2004. “Celebrating the story the way it is”: Cultural studies, corporate media and the contested utility of fandom. Continuum 18:7–25.

Nellis Berg, Kelly Anne Colleen. 2002. Making sense of television: Interpretive community and The X-Files fan forum: An ethnographic study. PhD diss., Univ. of Missouri–Columbia.

Pearson, Roberta E. 2003. Kings of infinite space: Cult television characters and narrative possibilities. Scope (August). http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/film/journal/articles/kings-of-infinite-space.htm (accessed June 1, 2006).

Penley, Constance. 1991. Brownian motion: Women, tactics, and technology. In Technoculture, ed. Contance Penley and Andrew Ross, 35–161. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

———. 1992. Feminism, psychoanalysis, and the study of popular culture. In Cultural studies, ed. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson, and Paula A. Treichler, 479–500. New York: Routledge.

———. 1997. NASA/Trek: Popular science and sex in America. New York: Verso.

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Porter, David. 1997. Internet culture. New York: Routledge.

Pugh, Sheenagh. 2004. The democratic genre: Fan fiction in a literary context. Refractory 5. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol5/pugh.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

———. 2005. The democratic genre: Fan fiction in a literary context. Bridgend, UK: Seren.

Radway, Janice. 1984. Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular literature. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

Russ, Joanna. 1985. Pornography by women, for women, with love. In Magic mommas, trembling sisters, Puritans and perverts: Feminist essays, 79–99. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press.

Russo, Julie Levin. 2002. NEW VOY “cyborg sex” J/7 [NC-17] 1/1: New methodologies, new fantasies. http://j-l-r.org/asmic/fanfic/print/jlr-cyborgsex.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

Rust, Linda. 2004. Welcome to the house of fun: Buffy fanfiction as a hall of mirrors. Refractory 2. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol2/lindarust.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Sabal, Robert. 1992. Television executives speak about fan letters to the networks. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 185–90. London: Routledge.

Sabucco, Veruska. 2003. Guided fan fiction: Western “readings” of Japanese homosexual-themed texts. In Mobile cultures: New media in queer Asia, ed. C. Berry, F. Martin, and A. Yue. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

Salmon, Catherine, and Don Symons. 2001. Warrior lovers: Erotic fiction, evolution and female sexuality. London: Orion.

———. 2004. Slash fiction and human mating psychology. Journal of Sex Research 41:94–100.

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Sandvoss, Cornel. 2005. Fans: The mirror of consumption. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Saxey, Esther. 2001. Staking a claim: The series and its slash fan-fiction. In Reading the Vampire Slayer: The unofficial critical companion to “Buffy” and “Angel,” ed. Roz Kaveny, 187–210. New York: Tauris Park.

Scodari, Christine. 1998. “No politics here”: Age and gender in soap opera “cyberfandom.” Women’s Studies in Communication 21:168–87.

———. 2003a. Resistance re-examined: Gender, fan practices, and science fiction television. Popular Communication 1:111–30.

———. 2003b. Review of Matt Hills, Fan cultures. Popular Communication 1:181–83.

Scodari, Christine, and Jenna L. Felder. 2000. Creating a pocket universe: “Shippers,” fan fiction, and The X-Files online. Communication Studies 51:238–58.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1985. Between men: English literature and male homosocial desire. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Selley, April. 1987. “I have been, and ever shall be, your friend”: Star Trek, The Deerslayer, and the American romance. Journal of Popular Culture 20:89–104.

Shave, Rachel. 2004. Slash fandom on the Internet, or Is the carnival over? Refractory 6. http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol6/RShave.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Silvergleid, Robin. 2003. “The truth we both know”: Readerly desire and heteronarrative in The X-Files. Studies in Popular Culture 25. http://pcasacas.org/SPC/spcissues/25.3/Silbergleid.htm (accessed June 1, 2006).

Smith, Eliot K. 1999. The romance of crossover: The cultural production of fandom in America. PhD diss., SUNY Buffalo.

Smol, Anna. 2004. “Oh…oh…Frodo!” Readings of male intimacy in The Lord of the Rings. Modern Fiction Studies 50:949–79.

Somogyi, Victoria. 2002. Complexity of desire: Janeway/Chakotay fan fiction. Journal of American and Comparative Culture 25:399–404.

Stein, Atara. 1998. Minding one’s p’s and q’s: Homoeroticism in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Genders 27. http://www.genders.org/g27/g27_st.html (accessed June 1, 2006).

Stein, Louisa. 2002. Subject: “Off topic: Oh my god U.S. terrorism!” Roswell fans respond to 11 September. European Journal of Cultural Studies 5:471–91.

———. 2005. “They cavort, you decide”: Fan discourses of intentionality, interpretation, and queerness in teen TV. Spectator 25:11–22.

Stilwell, Jessica. 2003. Fans without pity: Television, online communities, and popular criticism. MA thesis, Georgetown Univ. http://cct.georgetown.edu/thesis/JessicaStilwell.pdf (accessed October 22, 2005).

Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. Pornography or therapy? Japanese girls creating the yaoi phenomenon. In Millennium girls: Today’s girls around the world, ed. Sherrie A. Inness, 243–68. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Tulloch, John, and Henry Jenkins. 1995. Science fiction audiences: Watching “Doctor Who” and “Star Trek.” New York: Routledge.

Tushnet, Rebecca. 1997. Legal fictions: Copyright, fan fiction, and a new common law. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Journal 17:641–86. http://homepages.nyu.edu/~rlt2/legalfictions.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

———. 2004. Copy this essay. Yale Law Journal 114:535–90. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/114-3/Tushnet.12.1.pdf (accessed June 1, 2006).

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Vermorel, Fred, and Judy Vermorel. 1992. A glimpse of the fan factory. In The adoring audience, ed. Lisa A. Lewis, 191–207. London: Routledge.

Wakefield, Sarah. 2001. Your sister in St. Scully: An electronic community of female fans of The X-Files. Journal of Popular Film and Television 29, no. 3:130–37.

Walker, Cynthia W. Forthcoming. A dialogic approach to creativity in mass communication. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Wexblatt, Alex. 2003. An auteur in the age of the Internet: JMS, Babylon 5, and the Net. In Hop on pop: The politics and pleasures of popular culture, ed. Henry Jenkins, Tara McPherson, and Jane Shattuc, 209–26. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

Williamson, Milly. 2005. Spike, sex, and subtext. European Journal of Cultural Studies 8:289–311.

Woledge, Elizabeth. 2005a. From slash to the mainstream: Female writers and gender blending men. Extrapolation 46:50–65.

———. 2005b. Decoding desire: From Kirk and Spock to K/S. Social Semiotics 15:235–50.